Furthermore, several consonants have limited distributions: /h/ can only occur in syllable-initial position, and /ŋ/ only in syllable-final position.[157].

[60], As Modern English developed, explicit norms for standard usage were published, and spread through official media such as public education and state-sponsored publications. In County Wexford, in the area surrounding Dublin, two extinct dialects known as Forth and Bargy and Fingallian developed as offshoots from Early Middle English, and were spoken until the 19th century. Three circles of English-speaking countries, English loanwords and calques in other languages, /b, d, f, h, dʒ, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, j, z/, Baugh, Albert (1951).

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Indian English accents are marked by the pronunciation of phonemes such as /t/ and /d/ (often pronounced with retroflex articulation as [ʈ] and [ɖ]) and the replacement of /θ/ and /ð/ with dentals [t̪] and [d̪].

[231] English continues to gain new loanwords and calques ("loan translations") from languages all over the world, and words from languages other than the ancestral Anglo-Saxon language make up about 60% of the vocabulary of English. [253], Nonetheless, this attrition has mostly affected dialectal variation in grammar and vocabulary, and in fact, only 3 percent of the English population actually speak RP, the remainder speaking in regional accents and dialects with varying degrees of RP influence. The norms of standard written English are maintained purely by the consensus of educated English-speakers around the world, without any oversight by any government or international organisation.

Orthographically the possessive -s is separated from the noun root with an apostrophe.[175]. Other adjectives have comparatives formed by periphrastic constructions, with the adverb more marking the comparative, and most marking the superlative: happier or more happy, the happiest or most happy. [136] English is used as the language for wider communication in countries around the world. This gives an English syllable the following structure, (CCC)V(CCCC) where C represents a consonant and V a vowel; the word strengths /strɛŋkθs/ is thus an example of the most complex syllable possible in English. [8] An example is Basque.

[97] Spoken English, for example English used in broadcasting, generally follows national pronunciation standards that are also established by custom rather than by regulation. father. [273][274][275] Southern accents are colloquially described as a "drawl" or "twang,"[276] being recognised most readily by the Southern Vowel Shift initiated by glide-deleting in the /aɪ/ vowel (e.g. Proto-Indo-European is not attested by written records and so is conjectured to have been spoken before the invention of writing. Fortis stops such as /p/ have additional articulatory or acoustic features in most dialects: they are aspirated [pʰ] when they occur alone at the beginning of a stressed syllable, often unaspirated in other cases, and often unreleased [p̚] or pre-glottalised [ʔp] at the end of a syllable.

They are used to describe movement, place, and other relations between different entities, but they also have many syntactic uses such as introducing complement clauses and oblique arguments of verbs. [243] The standard orthography of English is the most widely used writing system in the world.

Most standard varieties are affected by the Great Vowel Shift, which changed the pronunciation of long vowels, but a few dialects have slightly different results.

These left a profound mark of their own on the language, so that English shows some similarities in vocabulary and grammar with many languages outside its linguistic clades—but it is not mutually intelligible with any of those languages either. In GA, vowel length is non-distinctive. [4] Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and relatively free word order, to a mostly analytic pattern with little inflection, a fairly fixed subject–verb–object word order and a complex syntax. [175], Some traits typical of Germanic languages persist in English, such as the distinction between irregularly inflected strong stems inflected through ablaut (i.e.

English later became more important and widespread during American rule between 1898 and 1946, and remains an official language of the Philippines. In most cases, interrogative words (wh-words; e.g. [58][59] In the countries of the EU, English is the most widely spoken foreign language in nineteen of the twenty-five member states where it is not an official language (that is, the countries other than Ireland and Malta).

There are exceptions to these generalisations, often the result of loanwords being spelled according to the spelling patterns of their languages of origin[242] or residues of proposals by scholars in the early period of Modern English to follow the spelling patterns of Latin for English words of Germanic origin.

It is alone among non-rhotic varieties in lacking intrusive r. There are different L2 varieties that differ based on the native language of the speakers. [145], In the table, when obstruents (stops, affricates, and fricatives) appear in pairs, such as /p b/, /tʃ dʒ/, and /s z/, the first is fortis (strong) and the second is lenis (weak). By the 7th century, the Germanic language of the Anglo-Saxons became dominant in Britain, replacing the languages of Roman Britain (43–409 CE): Common Brittonic, a Celtic language, and Latin, brought to Britain by the Roman occupation.

[21][264], North American English is fairly homogeneous compared to British English. Focus constructions emphasise a particular piece of new or salient information within a sentence, generally through allocating the main sentence level stress on the focal constituent.

Within Britain, non-standard or lower class dialect features were increasingly stigmatised, leading to the quick spread of the prestige varieties among the middle classes. The diphthongs /ei/ and /ou/ are monophthongs [eː] and [oː] or even the reverse diphthongs [ie] and [uo] (e.g.

[52], By the late 18th century, the British Empire had spread English through its colonies and geopolitical dominance. Many regional international organisations such as the European Free Trade Association, Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN),[59] and Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) set English as their organisation's sole working language even though most members are not countries with a majority of native English speakers. [222][220] Many of these words had earlier been borrowed into Latin from Greek. [140] This overview mainly describes the standard pronunciations of the United Kingdom and the United States: Received Pronunciation (RP) and General American (GA).

[106][107] Use of English is growing country-by-country internally and for international communication.

The major native dialects of English are often divided by linguists into the two extremely general categories of British English (BrE) and North American English (NAE). GA is a rhotic dialect, meaning that it pronounces /r/ at the end of a syllable, but RP is non-rhotic, meaning that it loses /r/ in that position. Adjectives modify a noun by providing additional information about their referents. Shared innovations, acquired by borrowing or other means, are not considered genetic and have no bearing with the language family concept. English also makes frequent use of constructions traditionally called phrasal verbs, verb phrases that are made up of a verb root and a preposition or particle which follows the verb. In English, adjectives come before the nouns they modify and after determiners. Commerce, science and technology, diplomacy, art, and formal education all contributed to English becoming the first truly global language. (When the wh-word is the subject or forms part of the subject, no inversion occurs: Who saw the cat?.)

English syntax relies on auxiliary verbs for many functions including the expression of tense, aspect, and mood. In 1828, Noah Webster published the American Dictionary of the English language to try to establish a norm for speaking and writing American English that was independent of the British standard. Within each of these regions several local subdialects exist: Within the Northern region, there is a division between the Yorkshire dialects and the Geordie dialect spoken in Northumbria around Newcastle, and the Lancashire dialects with local urban dialects in Liverpool (Scouse) and Manchester (Mancunian). An element of Norse influence that persists in all English varieties today is the group of pronouns beginning with th- (they, them, their) which replaced the Anglo-Saxon pronouns with h- (hie, him, hera).[43].

[238] Dubbed films and television programmes are an especially fruitful source of English influence on languages in Europe.[238]. For example, the word bite was originally pronounced as the word beet is today, and the second vowel in the word about was pronounced as the word boot is today. The table "Dialects and open vowels" shows this variation with lexical sets in which these sounds occur. The reflexive pronouns are used when the oblique argument is identical to the subject of a phrase (e.g.

[9] Middle English also greatly simplified the inflectional system, probably in order to reconcile Old Norse and Old English, which were inflectionally different but morphologically similar.

The countries with the most native English speakers are, in descending order, the United States (at least 231 million),[70] the United Kingdom (60 million),[71][72][73] Canada (19 million),[74] Australia (at least 17 million),[75] South Africa (4.8 million),[76] Ireland (4.2 million), and New Zealand (3.7 million). I was running), and compound tenses such as preterite perfect (I had been running) and present perfect (I have been running). A similar code-switching method is used by urban native speakers of Visayan languages called Bislish. The "inner circle"[68] countries with many native speakers of English share an international standard of written English and jointly influence speech norms for English around the world.

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