ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Beauty and the beast: mechanisms of sexual selection in humans. According to Jordania, most of these warning displays were incorrectly attributed to the forces of sexual selection.

375 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<3D0E513D8C7833B3E0122D0E2F3C9AE2><7C1344303A7C5A439ED3C40D2FF824B3>]/Index[351 89]/Info 350 0 R/Length 123/Prev 171653/Root 352 0 R/Size 440/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream (2000) Perspectives: Anecdotal, Historial and Critical Commentaries on Genetics. Chapter 1: The Nature of Science & The Nature of Sex, 1.8 Human Papillomavirus (HPV) and Cervical Cancer. [27] It has been suggested the evolution of the human penis towards larger size was the result of female choice rather than sperm competition, which generally favors large testicles. Jordania proposed an aposematic model of human evolution, where most of the human morphological and behavioral features that had been considered by Darwin as the result of sexual selection, via female choice, are explained by the aposematic (intimidating) display.[56]. [12], Sexual selection's role in human evolution cannot be definitively established, as features may result from an equilibrium among competing selective pressures, some involving sexual selection, others natural selection, and others pleiotropy. Sexual selection in humans concerns the concept of sexual selection, introduced by Charles Darwin as an element of his theory of natural selection, as it affects humans.The role of sexual selection in human evolution has not been firmly established although neoteny has been cited as being caused by human sexual selection. [45] Rogers et al. 10.9 What is the evidence for sexual selection in humans?

The developmental pathway from embryo to fetus is highly conserved, with little variation in the early stages of embryonic development. The second period occurred 500,000 years ago, with the emergence of archaic Homo sapiens.

[50], Anthropologist Peter Frost has proposed that sexual selection was responsible for the evolution of pigmentary traits of women in Northern and Eastern European populations. Although not explicit, his observation that in Khoisan women "the posterior part of the body projects in a most wonderful manner" (known as steatopygia)[17] implies sexual selection for this characteristic. Early evolutionary biologists were keen to observe that humans, especially compared to nearly all other mammals, were much less hairy. However, male monopolization of females was imperfect, and female mate choice, sperm competition, and sexual coercion also likely shaped men's traits. Charles Darwin conjectured that the male beard, as well as the hairlessness of humans compared to nearly all other mammals, were results of sexual selection.

The reliance of the human penis solely on hydraulic means to achieve a rigid state makes it particularly vulnerable to blood pressure variation. Because nipples are not a trait that is determined by male or female-specific genes, all human fetuses will develop them. [41] Both male and female use voice, face, and other physical characteristics[32] to assess a potential mate's ability to reproduce, as well as their health. The reproductive success of an organism is measured by the number of offspring left behind, and their quality or probable fitness. An interesting example of this is the presence of nipples in mammals. Evolution by sexual selection has been invoked to explain a number of human anatomical features, which appear useless or detrimental to human survival.

Genetic evidence. 10.12 Understanding human mating through language and culture, 10.13 Understanding the naturalistic fallacy, 10.14 Wrapping Up: Understanding the silent crickets, Chapter 12: Sexual Orientation and the Evolution of Homosexuality, 12.2 What do we mean by “Sexual Orientation?”, 12.4 Homosexuality is widespread in nature. 10.11 Is the brain another object of sexual desire? Next: 10.10 What’s up with the human female orgasm? Have you ever noticed most animals have a similar body plan? Men's traits are better designed for contest competition than for other sexual selection mechanisms; size, muscularity, strength, aggression, and the manufacture and use of weapons probably helped ancestral males win contests directly, and deep voices and facial hair signal dominance more effectively than they increase attractiveness. Psychopharmacology

[49] When humans started to migrate away from the tropics, there was less-intense sunlight, partly due to clothing to protect against cold weather. Name five “behavioral” adaptations that men do to try to attract mates (These might be consciously or subconsciously) Men flex their muscles, they puff out their chest, they try to make themselves look better, they strut, and they deepen their voice. The two-dimensionality of the human mating environment, along with phylogeny, the spatial and temporal clustering of mates and competitors, and anatomical considerations, predict that contest competition should have been the primary mechanism of sexual selection in men. [2] The role of sexual selection in human evolution has not been firmly established although neoteny has been cited as being caused by human sexual selection. In addition, lighter skin is able to generate more vitamin D (cholecalciferol) than darker skin, so it would have represented a health benefit in reduced sunlight if there were limited sources of vitamin D.[47] The genetic mutations leading to light skin may have experienced selective pressure due to the adoption of farming and settlement in northern latitudes. Others have suggested that it is the result of mate competition, because a larger penis will be more efficient in displacing sperm from rival males during sexual intercourse.

", "Does sexual dimorphism in human faces signal health? [33] Several studies suggest that there is a link between hormone levels and partner selection among humans. In a study measuring female attraction to males with varying levels of masculinity, it was established that women had a general masculinity preferences for men's voices, and that the preference for masculinity was greater in the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle than in the non-fertile phase. Interestingly, the human penis is also much thicker than the penises of other great apes. The answer will show up often as we discuss evolution- by-products of similar biological pathways in male and female animals can give rise to traits that are only selected for in one sex, but will often show up in the other sex. Evolution typically takes the path of least resistance and which organisms may not be completely optimized, we are often just “good enough” to survive and reproduce. [38] Furthermore, males also evaluate skin coloration, symmetry, and apparent health, as a means by which the select a partner for reproductive purposes. Jablonski and Chaplin took the spectrometer's global ultraviolet measurements and compared them with published data on skin color in indigenous populations from more than 50 countries.

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